What happens to the body in extreme cold?31/01/2019
Parts of America are freezing, the temperatures in the Midwest have fallen to minus 40 degrees. Anyone planning longer trips with the car, you should prepare for all possible mishaps and Blankets to wrap up, warns the CDC. Doctors warn of life-threatening conditions.
How the body reacts to extreme cold?
The most important organs sit in the middle of our body and in the head – you need to protect it. It is cold, the contraction of the body therefore the blood vessels in the arms and legs and restricts blood flow, thus less cold blood in the middle of the body flows. The consequences are palpable: fingers, toes, and ears from cool first of all, there is also the risk is greatest that frostbite.
In addition, the muscles start shivering to produce heat. Also, your metabolism changes, so the chemical reactions in the muscles, from sugar-derived energy in the Form of heat release. In extreme cold, these processes are not sufficient, however, the body temperature sinks.
How quickly temperatures of up to minus 40 degrees, it poses a risk?
Without adequate protection, the body could fall in temperature after only 30 minutes dangerous, says a emergency medical doctor in the “Time” magazine. Even faster, it can lead to frostbite of the skin. – As currently in the USA, Wind and temperatures of less than minus 27 degrees to each other, can skin already freezing within a few minutes, writes the American Mayo Clinic.
That Wind’s actual and perceived temperatures gape often apart, is easy to explain: The body gives off continuous heat, which is a few millimeters thick, insulating layer of air. The Wind carries this warm air, missing an important protective mechanism.
What are the consequences of hypothermia?
The normal body temperature varies from person to person, but is usually around 37 degrees. It drops by half a degree, we begin to freeze. 35 degrees Celsius is an emergency, from 30 degrees, it is life-threatening. The body temperature falls below 26 degrees, there is no Chance to survive. Mostly failure as a result of the cold the heart and circulation.
A the beginning of the end, serious cooling power, typically by chills noticeable, also the concentration. The Affected speak, sometimes vague, feeling drowsy, listless and sleepy. Also that’s what makes hypothermia so dangerous: Without help, many are no longer able to assess the Situation and to get help.
Anyone who encounters a cool person, you should choose the emergency and the Affected then to a calm place, preferably at room temperature. Important: to be Concerned not to quickly warm up, for example by proximity to a radiator, a fire or a warm bath, also warns of the ASB.
The sudden heat can cause the body opens the blood vessels in the arms and legs too quickly the cold blood in the middle of the body flows. There, it can lead to a so-called “after-drop”, an additional cooling. Also and massage are counter-productive scratch for this reason.
What happens in case of frostbite?
The signs of incipient frostbite is the most to know: The skin becomes cold and red, it tingles, finally, you can also be numb. At this stage, no permanent damage. Penetrates the cold further into the tissue and freeze-drying of the skin, staining it yellowish-white, and finally grey and white. You will only be waxen and finally hard. At the same time all the sensations of cold and pain are lost.
The cold tissue is destroyed to form after Heating within 24 to 48 hours, large blisters, then the skin turn black. In the case of First aid, it is also the case of frostbite is important to prevent further refrigeration, and the Places gently to warm up cold fingers in the armpit.
How can you protect yourself from extreme cold?
One of the most important advice: do Not drink alcohol. It increases the heat loss, because it widens the blood vessels. In addition, he ensures that we feel the cold less. Non-alcoholic drinks, however, are helpful, because a dehydrated body does not cool faster.
Also important the right clothing is. Experts advise not to several layers of too tight clothing, so that can collect between the layers of warm, insulating air layers. Mittens are better than regular gloves. The underwear should divert moisture away from the body, because sweat more on the skin at a later stage of the Cool down. Skiers know the effect when you are sitting in a busy departure in the Lift and the Wind is whistling around you. Therefore, is also true: If a is warm in a Moment, want to work on a layer, drop and later re-tighten.
You should also pay attention all the time to the first signs of frostbite. Since the Posts will eventually be deaf, many do not often, how serious it is to your skin. In addition, are not able to make frostbite, even under clothes, for example, if gloves are warm enough.